Dada and Proto-Pop Art

MoMA's 2006 Exhibit

Duchamp and Dada at The Met

Dada, NYC, 1951

Duchamp at The Philadelphia Museum (largest collection)

"Dadaism" by Tristan Tzara (snippet)

Sophie Taeuber

Photomontages of Hannah Hoch

Dada at the National Gallery of Art (NGA)

International Dada Archive

Mark Harden's Archive: "Dada and Surrealism"

Guggenheim Collection: Dada

PBS: Man Ray

PBS: Rauschenberg

PBS: Jasper Johns

PBS: Warhol

White Cube Gallery: Damien Hirst

Damien Hirst at The Met

Surrealism at The Met

Glitter and Doom

Neue Gallery, NYC

Dada [was] one of the twentieth century’s most influential avant-garde art movements. Responding to the disasters of World War I and to an emerging modern media and machine culture, Dada artists led a creative revolution that profoundly shaped the course of subsequent art. Dada was a defiantly international movement, the first to self-consciously position itself as an expansive network crossing countries and continents. Born in neutral Zurich and New York, two cities that served as independent points of origin for the movement, Dada rapidly spread to Berlin, Cologne, Hannover, Paris, and beyond. [The artists worked in all media, including] collage, film, painting, photography, printed matter, sound recording, and sculpture. [Some artists included in this circle] are Hans Arp, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Francis Picabia, Kurt Schwitters, and Sophie Taeuber.
From: Museum of Modern Art (MoMA)

Marcel Duchamp (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968), NYC, c. 1967

"The creative act is not performed by the artist alone; the spectator brings the work in contact with the external world
by deciphering and interpreting its inner qualifications and thus adds his contribution to the creative act."

Marcel Duchamp, The Fountain, 1917/1964

"Whether Mr. Mutt with his own hands made The Fountain or not has no importance. He chose it. He took an ordinary article of life, placed it so that its useful significance disappeared under a new title and point of view -- he created a new thought for the object." -- Duchamp

Marcel Duchamp, L.H.O.O.Q., 1919

"Painting is washed up," Duchamp said in 1912. "I want something where the eye and the hand count for nothing."

Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel, 1913/1964

Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2, 1911-1912

Jules-Etienne Marey, movement studies

Jules-Etienne Marey, movement studies

Marcel Duchamp, First Papers of Surrealism show, 1947

Marcel Duchamp, Étant Donnés: 1º La Chute D'eau 2º Le Gaz D'éclairage

Translation: Given: 1 The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas, 1946-1966 (worked in secret)

Marcel Duchamp, Fresh Widow, 1920 (MoMA)

This is a small replica of a traditional French window. The glass panes are covered with black leather that Duchamp insisted "should be shined every day like shoes." With the inscription along the base, Duchamp turned an inanimate French window into an anthropomorphic "Fresh Widow," which was, he felt, "an obvious enough pun." [From: MoMA]

Man Ray, The Gift, c. 1958 (replica of the 1921 original)

Man Ray’s first solo exhibition in Paris included paintings, aerographs, and collages, mostly brought from New York in his steamer trunk. Not listed in the catalogue was an object Man Ray constructed on the very afternoon his show opened: he glued a row of fourteen tacks to the bottom of an iron and added it to the works on display as a gift for the gallery owner, the poet Philippe Soupault. With its menacing blend of domesticity and sadomasochism, the object apparently attracted unusual attention—by the end of the day, Gift had vanished. [From: MoMA]

Man Ray, The Indestructible Object (or Object To Be Destroyed), 1964

Man Ray dated this work 1923, though it was transformed in 1932 when he substituted a photograph of the eye of Lee Miller—a photographer, [surrealist, and early on] the artist’s assistant, model, and lover—for the original eye he had used in what was then titled Object to Be Destroyed. At an exhibition in 1957, a group of protesting students took Man Ray at his word by destroying it; Man Ray eventually reconstructed and renamed the work Indestructible Object. [From: MoMA]. See also, Surrealism: The Monstrous Erotic under Lectures.

Christian Schad, Amourette, 1918.

The artist's "schadographs" are among the earliest intentionally abstract photographs. Using the cameraless photogram technique—in existence since the discovery of photography but previously unused for artistic purposes—Schad covered the surfaces of light-sensitive paper with various objects and then left them to develop by his windowsill. He preferred worn materials, such as scraps of paper and bits of fabric, often searching for these things on the streets and in garbage cans. Schad frequently extended his assault on artistic tradition by cutting a jagged border around the schadographs, "to free them," as he explained, "from the convention of the square." [From: MoMA] See also: Glitter and Doom.

Jasper Johns, born May 15, 1930

Jasper Johns, Target with Plaster Casts, 1955

Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954-55 (MoMA)

Jasper Johns, detail of Flag

Jasper Johns, White Flag, 1955 (MMA)

Jasper Johns, Figure 8, 1987

Jasper Johns, False Start, 1959

Jasper Johns, Flashlight, 1960

Jasper Johns, Painted Bronze, 1960

Andy Warhol, 32 Campbell Soup Cans, 1961-62 (MoMA)

Jasper Johns, Summer, 1985 - from the Seasons Series